Wednesday, December 23, 2015

The Mystery of Identity in Book of Abraham Facsimile 2 And The Eclipsing Binary Star, Algol, in New Findings from Helsinki University

December 24, 2015

The round Egyptian hypocephalus, really a circle within a circle, represents both the solar pupil and the solar iris (the hypocephalus rim). Being the Eye of Re, it encompasses all that the sun sees and all that he governs as he rounds the universe and sets its boundaries. Within its compass--yet opposites sharply demarcated within the pupil--appear reflected the topsy-turvy realms of night and day, darkness and light, the netherworld and the sidereal heavens.

Which brings us--perhaps--to Algol, an eclipsing binary star. . .

"In this eclipsing binary, the dimmer star partially covers the brighter star with a period of 2.867 days." "These eclipses, says Lauri Jetsu, "last about ten hours and they can be easily observed with unaided eyes" (Renu Rangela, "Ancient Egyptian documents may carry records of important astronomical events," Ibtimes, 21 December 2015).

A team of scientists and egyptologists at Helsinki, in an intriguing though not convincing study, now "present evidence indicating that the period of Algol was 2.850 days three millennia ago. For religious reasons, the ancient Egyptians have recorded this period [along with the lunar period] into the Cairo Calendar (CC) [a register of lucky and unlucky days], which describes the repetitive changes of the Raging One" (Lauri Jetsu, et al., "Did the Ancient Egyptians Record the Period of the Eclipsing Binary Algol--the Raging One?"The Astrophysical Journal, 773:1 (10 August 2013), Abstract; the latest article is L. Jetsu, S. Porceddu, "Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: the Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed," PLoS ONE, 10 (12), 17 December 2015).

"We show that n ≈ 200 good prognoses would induce PMoon and PAlgol in CC, even if the remaining n ≈ 700 good and bad prognoses had aperiodic origins (Leitz 1994; e.g., diseases, floods, feasts, winds)" (L. Jetsu, 2013, 1).

In other words, not only did the Ancient Egyptian scribes discover and measure the period of Algol (if not its binary nature), they also paired the symbolism of the lunar cycle with that of the star and applied both to the workings of the Calendar. Measure and analogy were no small thing for the Egyptians. The priesthood held as sacred duty "the measurement of time by observing stars while they conducted the proper nightly rituals that kept the Sun safe during its journey across the underworld. The timing of these rituals was important, because it had to appease the terrible guardians, who opened one gate of the underworld at each hour. The Sun was reborn at the 12th hour, but only if Ancient Egyptian Scribes performed the rituals absolutely right. The risk that the Sun would never rise again was imminent" (L. Jetsu, 2013, 10-11, italics added). There comes to mind a classic scriptural moment of astronomical observation and its subsequent portrayal in the form of a cosmic circle or sphere: "And I saw the stars" (Book of Abraham 3:2).

We return to the round hypocephalus, which itself depicts the moment of sunrise at the morn of creation. The Latter-day Saint reader will here recall how the Prophet Joseph Smith's Explanation of the hypocephalus begins with "the measurement of time"; even "the measurement of celestial time" "according to the measurement of the earth" (which varies by season, note the Helsinki scientists, as the days and nights wax and wane). It is the moment in which the celestial kicks off the earthly time clock. The Prophet further discerns "numerical figure[s]" in the mythological representation of the stellar firmament "answering to the measurement of the time" of a great star, which then perfectly accords with the "revolution" and "measuring of time" of another, like, star. Hugh Nibley sorts the Prophet's "brief explanation" under the following headings: Cosmology, Measurement and number, Transmission of power or energy, Hierarchy or dominion (intelligence and purpose), Ordinances and procedures (Hugh Nibley and Michael Rhodes, One Eternal Round, 240, 244ff., 256). Ritual procedure thus accords with cosmic measurement to ensure the continuing downward flow of divine power--that's the Egyptian picture and that's the Egyptian practice.

Where does the eclipse come in? Hugh Nibley gives us a lead in his commentary on the Book of Breathings, or Sensen Document, this last a ritual serving to unite (snsn) the deceased with his solar father, which is also analogous to the reunion of the solar Ba-spirit and the Osirian corpse:

That he might enter the horizon along with his father Re;
To cause his Ba to appear in glory in heaven
(and) in the disk (itn) of the Moon
that his corpse might shine in (or as) Orion
in the womb (or body) of Nut (ll. 2-3)

The Egyptian verb that describes the fusing of the Ba-spirit of the king with Re is hnm: and "one wonders," says Nibley, "if the meeting or fusing (hnm) of the disks [in the above and related passages] could be anything but an eclipse" (Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri: An Egyptian Endowment, 83)?

Note the following phases of funerary ritual, which also mark phases of fusing, as that which is celebrated on earth matches, in timed precision, what unfolds in heaven (cf. Moses 6:63 = Hugh Nibley, Michael Rhodes, One Eternal Round, 256).

1) "In the darkest moment of the royal funeral in the deepest and darkest of chambers, the restoration process begins to take place, with the Ba assuming the most tenuous of forms, that of smoke provided by scented candles"(Nibley, Message, 82).

2) "The rites of royal burial ended exactly at sunrise, when the Ba of the dead king joined his father on the horizon" (81). This last is also "The meeting of Re and Osiris in their astral aspects" (Philippe Derchain on the secret ceremony of the Uniting of Re and Osiris in the House of Life = Nibley, Message, 83). Note, then, the left-hand panel of the hypocephalus, the last line of which ends with the prayer: May the Ba of Sheshonq be caused to live! According to the Prophet Joseph, that same line contains things "to be had in the temple of God," that is, things pertaining to a royal etiquette or royal secret set in motion by the workings of sacred ritual in a sacred sanctuary.

The discerning reader will draw the connection between the dim star--the ghoul of Algol, as the Arabs have it--and the scented smoke (or between the darkened moon and the scented smoke). Here is the Ba of Re on the shadowy night journey to join its corpse, in the form of Osiris, the god of the underworld. The Egyptian scribes who penned the Amduat (the Book of What is in the Underworld) do picture the night sun as traversing, at once, both underworld and stellar expanse (in the form of a star). As for the sunrise, Cannot the event also be figured in the bright star of Algol, as it emerges from eclipse? Would it were true! What a find that would be!

The scenario would certainly evoke the appearance of glory in the disk (itn) of the moon--another eclipse, says Nibley. The disk of the sun and the disk of the moon both figure the place and moment of hnm. Meeting in one disk, or meeting in one star or in a single constellation, so signifies the fusing of two (or more) Ba-spirits. Thus the Ba of Isis famously is the star Sothis (Sirius); that of mighty Horus, the constellation Orion. Hugh Nibley sums it up: "The idea that the Ba of one exalted being may unite with that of another is the ultimate expression of the mystery of identity" (Message, 82).

And of all identities, that of Re and Osiris is the most paradoxical; the ceremony that works the meeting in the House of Life thus becomes the most prohibitive, the most mysterious, and the most sacred event in the Egyptian view of the universe (Papyrus Salt 825). The Egyptian hypocephalus thus hardly embraces the run-of-the-mill funerary, as critics of Joseph Smith trumpet. Neither is the gist of the matter, as the Helsinki scientists describe it, the daily return of the sun on the horizon--things are much more fraught with moment than that! The purpose of the ceremony is to work the unity of the sun with its own dark twin and thus to effect the continuation of all life, despite all death, as manifest in Re-Osiris, the ultimate and ineffable power of the universe.

The work at Helsinki, despite its cargo of statistics, remains unproved (see links and the brief, dismissive comments in Electronic Egyptian Forum News 905). Grasp of the intricacies of Ancient Egyptian religion appears tenuous. One might also hope for the discovery of a second reference to Algol, or to its period, in the textual corpus. Still, all such work ought to be encouraged. As Professor Barry J. Kemp points out, students of Egyptian may stumble across ideas and connections very much in line with the sort of thinking pursued by the ancient scribes (Kemp, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization). The ancient tradition lives on in such discoveries, though we must tread with care.

To identify Algol with Horus, the living king, or with the Eye of Horus, in "his" (read, her) benign and wrathful aspects, intrigues, though it also falls short of the textual evidence. Not that the Calendar holds no surprises. Fascinating is the description of Re viewing the world through the Eye of Horus, as if through a special instrument, or, as described in other places, through a special messenger traversing the expanses (cf. the Explanation of Facsimile 2, no. 7; or even Abraham 3:2). He then invites the "great ones" (wr.w) to see what he has therewith seen. They cower before the flaming wrath of the Eye in the presence of Re. Fascinating, but what has it to do with Algol? Nothing. Besides, it is Sirius in her (read, his) form as Horus Sopdet that flares as the "raging one."

The formulas and the theories equating Algol and royal Horus do not take into full consideration the Egyptian fondness for analogy, multiplicity, fusion, and, well, fuzziness. Like anything else in the Egyptian cosmos, Algol cannot be boxed into a sole star. Neither can Horus: various planets, famously including red Mars, all take the name of Horus. In this case, we speak principally of Horus the Eldest, the prehistoric falcon that encompasses the universe in his revolutions. Horus the child and royal Horus, though tethered to the Eldest in a manner not altogether clear, come into a different story.

According to the Coffin Texts (VII 491h), Horus the Eldest paradoxically stands both in the middle (Hrj-jb = "over the heart") of the stars in the northern hemisphere and also in the middle of all the southern stars. The wording is: "in the middle of the stars of the upper region and of the opposing lower region," a view of the cosmos something recalling the schema of the opposing halves of the spherical hypocephalus. The four Sons of Horus the Eldest also make their appearance in the heavens, one of whom appears as the red star, Dosh-iati-imi-hawt-ins, the One whose two eyes are red, who dwells in the House of Scarlet, that is, the Horizon (for Horus Smsw, see Bernard Mathieu, "Les enfants d'Horus, theologie et astronomie," ENIM 1 (2008), 7-14).

For the Latter-day Saint reader, the Eldest Star standing "over the heart" evokes Kolob as "Heart Star" (qrb; Kolob is fig. 1 in the hypocephalus). Dosh-iati-imi-hawt-ins evokes Enish-go-on-dosh (fig. 5: the Hathor cow), both a star and also the sun, according to the Egyptians--so Joseph Smith. "Said by the Egyptians to be the sun." The four-headed ram that the Prophet names Kolob, and which Daniel Klotz terms the Cosmic Amun, likewise "depicts [both] the creator god in its most powerful manifestation, and thus also the sun at the peak of its glory," according to the very latest study (Gyula Priskin, "The encounter between the sun and the moon on hypocephali," Birmingham Egyptology Journal 2015 (3:24-41), 26). We, here, recall the configuration of the hypocephalus as a circle within a circle, pupil and iris, the dark pupil and the blazing iris or corona. Do we see a solar eclipse here as well?

Kolob and Enish-go-on-dosh make up the dominant celestial figures in their respective, and inverse, hemispheres on the hypocephalus (see Explanation of Facsimile 2 of the Book of Abraham). Enish-go-on-dosh appears just below the red horizon. The n in go-on-dosh, as far as that goes, hints at the Egyptian imi, thus imi-dosh, as the one who is in the dosh, or red horizon, or even the hw.t dSr, the house of red--again, inside the horizon. I suggest transcribing Enish-go-on-dosh as insi.t q3j.t imi dSr.wt, the Exalted Scarlet One, that is the Scarlet Eye, who is in her Red Resplendence.

Lovely Hathor, the Feminine Sun at Dendera, takes the epithet 'n.t x'w, the One who is beautiful [on-] in her manifestations [-go = x'w?], that is, in her manifestations as the solar Eye. Other readings for Enish-go-on-dosh (again, the Hathor cow on the hypocephalus), spring to mind. Consider ond- dosh(t): 'n.t or 'jn.ty dSr.ty (the One whose Wedjat Eye is red--with anger). 'n.t dSr(.ty) also much recalls the divine epithet dSr or dSr.ty ir.ty (dosht-iat) attached to one of the sons of Horus, as we have seen.

I favor reading Enish-go-on-dosh as either the Red Solar Eye (jns.t) or as the Living Solar Eye ('nx.t; 'nsh.t) in her exaltations (-go = q3j.t), even the Beautiful Eye in her Red Resplendence ('n.t dSr.wt). Enish-go-on-dosh, a fused name, thus signifies the conceptual unity of the Solar Eye at the powerful moments of both sunrise and sunset.

Of one thing we may be sure: Egyptian cosmology is more than what the handbooks tell.

"And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them" (Genesis 15:5). Abraham's is an expanding universe.

So where does Algol, a blue star, fit in? The keen-eyed Egyptians could not have failed to spot the ghoulish star. The question remains Whether it signified? Perhaps Algol, like Sirius, like Orion, like the moon, may yet unfold as "ultimate expression of the mystery of identity."

Now to find the Egyptian name for the star!

Tuesday, December 15, 2015

Zerahemnah, Zarahemla, and the phonological l/n variant

For the student of Semitic phonology, the Book of Mormon name Zerahemnah trips the wire. Little bells start to ring.

The Book of Omni starts us off with Zarahemla, the leader of the Mulekites and the namesake of their great city. We thereafter meet the city of Zarahemla on every page, but in Alma's book, the name Zerahemnah, the Zoramite captain, brings us up short.

Are Zarahemla and Zerahemnah variants of the same name? Professor Jo Ann Hackett "suggested [Zerahemnah] was either a mistake or a confusion in pronunciation," on the part of the modern scribes or typesetters (BYU's Book of Mormon Onomasticon, q.v. Zerahemnah). Since the record keepers duly inform us of the tribal divisions of the Nephites: Nephites, Jacobites, Josephites, and Zoramites, not to mention the Mulekites, with whom the Nephites (and the Jacobites, Josephites, and Zoramites) later united, we can rest assured that Zera- or Zarahemnah is neither mistake nor confusion, but simply variant or even dialect. The Mulekites perhaps pronounced Zarahemla one way, and the four Nephite tribes (or even each of the four), another. The Zoramites, though also affiliated with the Nephites, yet maintained a separate identity throughout the centuries: the pronunciation Zerahem-nah leaves a trace of that separateness. And doubtless many other students have come to the same conclusion about Zerahemnah.

Royal Skousen, in his study of both the Original and Printer's Manuscripts of the Book of Mormon, notes four distinct spellings for Zerahemnah: thus also Zarahemnah and Zerahemna--and even Zarahemlah (Alma 44:12, Original Ms.; Analysis of the Textual Variants of the Book of Mormon, 4:2456). Before we credit Joseph or Oliver or both with the a/e or l/n mix-up, we first should take into account the ear of Alma. Alma confusing Zarahemlah for Zarahemnah, if but once, is the very thing a Zoramite would expect of a Nephite. 

Mormon diligently edited Alma, yet given the tribal tally, it would come as a surprise if traces of dialect did not pop up. Consider the following reference, not to Alma's ear, but to his mouth and tongue: "Behold my beloved brethren, seeing that I have been permitted to come unto you [in the Valley of Gideon], therefore I attempt to address you in my own language; yea, by my own mouth" (Alma 7:2; cf. Hebrew lashon, tongue, speech, language). I recall Hugh Nibley saying this verse referred to dialects: Alma's people had lived hundreds of miles away from the main body of the Nephites for three generations, and many of these people, on returning "home," had later chosen the Valley of Gideon, named for their own tribal hero, as their new, and separate, home.

Then what of Zerahemnah? Those who study Semitic languages note the fluidity of the consonants (or even semi-vowels) r, l, and n. We recall the allophone l/n in other languages, e.g., the Mandarin word for cold: leng v. neng (Taiwan). Some students even take r, l, and n for allophones of a sole original Proto-Semitic phoneme. But not only does the lengthy record attest many instances of shift or neutralization between Semitic l and n, Edward Lipinski assures us that "The variation l/n is a surviving feature of Afro-asiatic," Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar (2001), 142 (see pages 139ff.).

So common is the l/n variation, whether allophonic or truly dialectal, that its absence in a large record like the Book of Mormon would be baffling. The example Professor Lipinski gives for the "surviving feature" is the Hebrew word for speech itself, lashon. While the corresponding Egyptian word is written ns, both Demotic and Coptic, the later forms of the language, give the spelling las. We mustn't mind the earlier spelling: the Egyptians, from the earliest times, pronounced the word /las/, though /nas/ would also have been heard on the streets of Memphis.

If you have Zarahemla, you've simply got to have Zerahemnah too. 

Monday, December 14, 2015

Gidanah or Giddonah (Alma 14:3)--What Might The Name Mean?

"I am Amulek; I am the son of Giddonah, who was the son of Ishmael, who was a descendant of Aminadi"--so Amulek introduces himself to auditors in his own city, Ammonihah.

Giddonah is an odd name--but so are the others. Odder yet: "For some reason the 1830 typesetter altered Gidanah, the spelling in [the Printer's Manuscript of the Book of Mormon] to Giddonah," Royal Skousen, Analysis of Textual Variants of the Book of Mormon, 3:1774; BYU Book of Mormon Onomasticon.

"I am Amulek; I am the son of Gidanah."

Either way, it's the same name.

Amulek, Ishmael, Aminadi: Aramaic and Hebrew hold the key--but what might Gidanah mean? The Proto-Semitic root *gVdVn (*gadan, or maybe *gidan) signifies "to become rich" (see no. 903 in "Semitic etymology," Arabic attests the same root as jdn (to be prosperous, rich), as in jadan (gift, bounty; F. J. Steingass, English-Arabic Dictionary).

But is Gidanah anywhere attested as a Semitic name? In CAD G we find the archaic (Ur III) personal name, Gidanu, which, we are told, is "probably West Semitic." 

That another well-born Giddonah, a contemporary of the first, sits as high priest in the land of Gideon shows us that the Book of Mormon is on the right track. Gadan or Gidan ultimately springs from the Proto-Semitic root *gid (that which is strong, big; the sinew). As for Gideon, the name signifies to hew wood.

The Book of Mosiah presents Gideon, the king's captain, all full of wrath and boldness: he settled the land that bears his name. Another warrior in the Book of Alma bears the name Gid, which signifies sinew, the source of strength--and of prosperity. The same root, attested throughout Semitic languages, appears in the name of the ancient Jaredite king, Amgid (people of sinew). The Jaredite rulers, you will recall from Ether's book, were all "strong and mighty men." As Alma's contemptuous contemporary Korihor cynically notes in a deft but elusive turn of phrase, which may or may not subtly play on words: "therefore every man prospered according to his genius, and that every man conquered according to his strength" (Alma 30:17; Professor Jo Ann Hackett has mulled over Gid as sinew: see BYU's Book of Mormon Onomasticon, q.v. "Gid"). 

Giddonah of Gideon, as the high priest at Korihor's trial, is a bulls-eye for the Book of Alma; Amgid fits the archaic Book of Ether; Gidanah derives from the earlier West Semitic form, Gidanu; and the Book of Mormon even gives us the name Gidgiddonah, which has a super-prosperous ring to it (see comments in Skousen, 3:1774). These names and offices and roles all resonate at a cultural plane just above our reach. 

Gidanah (or Giddonah) not only reflects Proto-Semitic *gVdVn, the name also fits what Alma tells us of the family of Amulek: they were rich. A principal trait of the Ammonihahites was the fast grab for easy money--a game of glib lawyers--and Gidan-ah suggests a prosperous land, city, or family. Gidanah signifies her (its) bounty, her gift, or as an abstract noun: a bounty, a rich gift. It's a great baby name. True, better to avoid Gadianton.

Thursday, December 10, 2015

Bright Zion, "Orbed in a Rainbow"

Part II of "Marked with Red in Their Foreheads," posted 10 May 2010  

"Orbed in a Rainbow" (Hodie, Ralph Vaughan Williams = John Milton, "Ring Out, Ye Crystal Spheres")

We are "to liken" all scripture unto ourselves. What modern practices might correspond to the action of the rebellious Amlicites in marking their foreheads with red? Modern prophets warn against the practice of marking the body with tattoos. Tattoos "defile" the temple of God, for the body is intended to be the dwelling-place of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthians 3:17; 6:19). As followers of Christ, we manifest a constant love for all; neither do we seek to judge anyone who marks their body. At the same time, we share the prophetic warning about sanctifying the temple of God in our bodies.

Another practice reminiscent of marking the forehead with red is the use of color in social media as a sign of allegiance to claims of equality not in alignment with the will of God. To superimpose symbolic colors onto one's own photograph on Facebook or Twitter, as a sign of allegiance and of dissent--even if that is a quiet dissent--follows the practice of the Amlicites. 

The substance that makes up discipleship is a thing of many days and, likely, even many jarrings. Every six months we come together in General Conference. We look for peace and comfort and love; we may find testing and rebuke. Learning at the feet of prophets and apostles was never easy. A disciple may be jarred into painful outcry for a day, but what is a day? As we continue in the covenant path, we must "hold on [our] way" by often also holding our tongues, meanwhile striving to tame our hearts. Loyalty, pure and undiluted, in both public and in private, should be the aim of every true disciple of Christ.

To follow Christ we must love and serve without distinction of persons--"charity is the pure love of Christ"--but as Latter-day Saints, we must ever hold sacred how the Scriptures of the Restoration present the rainbow, with its comprehensive spectrum, as a symbol of God's eternal covenant with His chosen people to bring again Zion. Section 97:21 of the Doctrine and Covenants defines the community of Zion as "THE PURE IN HEART.

The bow further signals for the faithful that promised moment in which latter-day Zion and the Zion of Enoch will unite in purity, glory, and peace. Here is the full separation from the world. Here is Ralph Vaughan Williams's stunning rainbow scene in the Christmas cantata Hodie. In the hope of the rainbow, promised tomorrow will dawn Today:

Orbed in a rainbow, and, like glories wearing,
Mercy will sit between,
Throned in celestial sheen,
With radiant feet the tissued clouds down steering;
And heaven, as at some festival,
Will open wide the gates of her high palace hall.

The festival is the panegyris, the glorious celebration of Zion, what the Scriptures call the "general assembly."

And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant, which I made unto thy father Enoch; that, when men should keep all my commandments, Zion should again come on the earth, the city of Enoch which I have caught up unto myself. And this is mine everlasting covenant, that when thy posterity shall embrace the truth, and look upward, then shall Zion look downward, and all the heavens shall shake with gladness, and the earth shall tremble with joy. And the general assembly of the church of the firstborn shall come down out of heaven, and possess the earth, and shall have place until the end come. And this is mine everlasting covenant, which I made with thy father Enoch (Joseph Smith Translation Genesis 9:21-25). 

When we "look upon" the rainbow, we, too, should "remember the everlasting covenant" of the promise of Zion, THE PURE IN HEART

James Thomas Linnell's richly beautiful painting, "The Rainbow," found in the annex of the Salt Lake Temple--And the bow shall be in the cloud, and I will establish my covenant unto thee--carries that same message to the hearts of all who enter there.

Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Defining the Christian Family in Recent LDS Policy and Handbook Updates

"And I will save thy children" (1 Nephi 21:25)

The Council of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints now stipulates that children whose primary residence is with "adults who choose to enter into a same-gender marriage or similar relationship" cannot be blessed and named upon the records of the Church nor can they be considered for baptism and membership in the Church until the age of 18 (First Presidency Letter of 13 November 2015; for the study, prayer, revelations, and confirmations leading to the policy, now also see President Russell M. Nelson, "Becoming True Millennials," 11 January 2016, 

Enrollment on Church records, the first step to baptism at the customary age of eight, would inevitably lead to a struggle--a tug-of-war--between the doctrine and practices of the Church and the choices of parents, with the child unwittingly and innocently caught in the middle. The result would be an unfair, and untenable, test of loyalty. "Filled with compassion for all, and especially for the children," the presiding Brethren began the rigorous, "wrenching," "sacred process" of seeking divine revelation and of waiting on the Lord's Prophet, according to President Russell M. Nelson. "Our concern with respect to children is their current and future well-being and the harmony of their home environment" (First Presidency Letter). The updated policy aligns itself to "revealed doctrine" "that families are eternal in nature and purpose" (Letter) and "originates from a desire to protect children in their innocence and in their minority years. . . We don't want the child to have to deal with issues that might arise where the parents feel one way and the expectations of the Church are very different," says Elder D. Todd Christofferson. He speaks of "difficulties, challenges, conflicts that can injure their development in very tender years" ("Elder Christofferson Says Handbook Changes Regarding Same-Sex Marriages Help Protect Children,"

"All children are to be treated with utmost respect and love. They are welcome to attend Church meetings and participate in Church activities. All children may receive priesthood blessings of healing and spiritual guidance" (First Presidency Letter). Although Church meetings will always remain open to all children, enrollment on Church records might not help everyone. Enrollment requires visits to the home to teach doctrine and to explain to both children and parents all the duties of membership. Such thoroughgoing home instruction, by official Church teachers, in the laws governing chastity, family, and marriage, as preparation for baptism, would persistently counter any parental teaching, in a variety of circumstances, about chastity and forms of marriage being a matter of individual choice. Latter-day Saint Scripture uses strong words to describe all violation of the law of chastity: even what the Book of Mormon calls "so great a crime" (Alma 39:5, 7).

The Book of Mormon prophet Jacob best describes that inevitable clash of cultures today in these words spoken long ago: 

"It burdeneth my soul that I should be constrained, because of the strict commandment which I have received from God, to admonish you according to your crimes, to enlarge the wounds of those who are already wounded, instead of consoling and healing their wounds; and those who have not been wounded, instead of feasting upon the pleasing word of God have daggers placed to pierce their souls and wound their delicate minds. 

But, notwithstanding the greatness of the task, I must" (Jacob 2:9-10).

And prophets and apostles today, "notwithstanding the greatness of the task," and with love's "great anxiety even unto pain," teach "an everlasting hatred against sin" (Alma 13:27; 37:32). Yet the Church also upholds all parents in their right to raise their children as they please and to shield, as they please, "delicate minds," even "children, many of whose feelings are exceedingly tender and chaste and delicate before God" (v. 7). Children may yet suffer; for legalizing same-sex marriage, as all must acknowledge, is a social experiment in its very first stages. That being so, a question comes to mind: As same-sex parents come to discover in many of their children a refinement and a delicacy, even a longing for all that is chaste and all that is pure, how shall they reach them?  

Parental reassurances to children about the mindless bigotry of recoiling billions in every place and culture, before 2015--and far beyond 2015--will not convince the more thoughtful. The thoughtful mind resists social conditioning and inevitably comes to see "things as they really are" (Jacob 4:13). Besides, does the record of humanity show any instance where parental immorality of any kind will not, later if not sooner, shame the tender, wound the refined, and distress the noble? Nor law nor loyalty can withstand shame. The Book of Mormon, which seems to consider every circumstance of human life, directly poses the question of whether posterity will "look with joy" upon their forbears or "shrink with shame."(Jacob 4:3; 2:6). That stark and staring dilemma will remain long after the conditioning fades.

Not only does the comprehensive Book of Mormon sound the warning; it shows the consequence. We accordingly read of some so "displeased with the conduct" of their adulterous fathers "they took upon themselves the name of [righteous] Nephi, that they might be called the children of Nephi" (Mosiah 25:12). 

These truths apply to every parent and in all circumstances. Even conscientious Jacob, who, "weighed down" with "desire" and "anxiety," labored to teach his own children "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord," worried whether his posterity would "learn with joy and not with sorrow, neither with contempt, concerning their first parents" (Jacob 2:3; 4:3; Enos 1). Jacob thus teaches us first to set our own homes in order, and to repent if we fail, in any respect, "to bring up" our own children "in light and truth" (Doctrine and Covenants 93:40). 

Yet to set our own homes in order, someone must define what a Latter-day Saint home is, what any Christian home is--and what it is not. With whom should the responsibility of defining the Latter-day Saint home and family rest? No matter deserves our closer attention, especially following the Supreme Court decision of June 2015 regarding same-sex marriage. The policy updates, as a thoughtful, apostolic response to the decisions of the Court, do serve to define and to set in order the Latter-day Saint family. Once defined to the view of all, in light of such sweeping and unprecedented judicial rulings, the Latter-day Saint family, secure in its identity and its purpose, may move forward in its divine mission to bless the lives of the whole human family. All parents will be upheld in their choices; neighbors will live in peace; children will play with children.

Despite the Church's avowed desire to safeguard children who otherwise might be caught in a fundamental conflict of loyalties, there are those who challenge the policy as being inherently unchristian. Some even proof text Luke 18:16: "Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God." 

We may charitably set aside the matter of citing scripture to oppose living oracles of God, who counsel together, in the sight of God, for the benefit of every Latter-day Saint family, to ask instead whether Luke 18:16 rebukes and forbids the Church's current policy on recording names or on baptism?

While the Lord calls little children, whom He also names holy, to come unto Him, additional scripture sheds light on the journey. The Book of Mormon addresses the nurture of children by righteous parents, parents who impart tender, chaste, and delicate teachings, even parents "who prepare the minds of their children to hear the word" shared by a welcoming Lord (Alma 39:16). We learn of Helaman, who specifically chose names for his sons to stir memory of ancestral "first parents," Lehi and his son, Nephi, as models of holiness (Helaman 5:6). (To whom will married same-sex parents point their own children as models of holiness?) Helaman, we are told, "did do that which was right in the sight of God continually and he did walk after the ways of his father. . . And it came to pass that he had two sons. He gave unto the eldest the name of Nephi, and unto the youngest, the name of Lehi. And they began to grow up unto the Lord" (Helaman 3:20-21).

If indeed a signal blessing for a little child to "come unto" Jesus during the days of His ministry, it is surely a greater blessing for any child, taught by righteous parents "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord" (Enos 1), to begin "to grow up unto the Lord." Indeed how can any of us ultimately come unto Jesus until we grow up unto Him by enduring and following admonition (that is, clear warning against all sin), increasing in understanding, obedience, and faith? Those who "grow up unto the Lord," are His in every respect. They are transformed into Saints who follow His every command, being "converted unto the Lord." 

The question then arises What are the circumstances under which a child may "grow up unto the Lord?" Or, What may hinder such growth? Such questions are, properly speaking, "grown-up questions," and no blithe and simplistic repetition of "Suffer little children" or "Forbid them not" will suffice for an answer. No. Better to call to mind the words of Paul: "Brethren, be ye not children in understanding" (1 Corinthians 14:20). The New International Version translates: "Brothers and sisters, stop thinking like children" (see

"Brothers and sisters, stop thinking like children!"

For the laws, covenants, and practices governing Latter-day Saint families today, we turn to the Doctrine and Covenants, a book of revelations of the Lord Jesus Christ to the Prophet Joseph Smith and his successors. These are the words of the Lord Jesus to all families today.

From the Doctrine and Covenants we learn that Christ's commandments about teaching and raising children in His families and in His Church, which together make up His Zion, is no simplistic matter. Instead it requires--the Lord's own covenantal choice of words--an intense and thorough preparation of "the minds of their children" to receive His word by the power of the Holy Ghost. 

"Inasmuch as parents have children in Zion. . . that teach them not to understand the doctrine of repentance, faith in Christ the Son of the living God, and of baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of the hands, when eight years old, the sin be upon the heads of the parents. For this shall be a law unto the inhabitants of Zion. . . And they shall also teach their children to pray, and to walk uprightly before the Lord" (68:25-8). 

What does Section 68 have to do with the specific updates in Church policy today? Everything! Again, the updates came only after the Supreme Court decision to legalize same-sex marriages. The policy thus responds to decisions giving the sanction of law to immorality by making clear that a "willing and obedient" alignment to the law of the Lord governing and defining family is what the Lord requires of those who seek to establish His Kingdom and His Zion (see Isaiah 1:19; Doctrine and Covenants 64:34). How can we know whether the decisions of prophets and apostles accord with the will of the Lord? The answer is simple: Do the living oracles align themselves 
with the canonized revelations, laws, and covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ?

Jesus commands all parents today "to bring up your children in light and truth" (Doctrine and Covenants 93:40). "Intelligence, or in other words, light and truth," we are instructed, "forsaketh that evil one" (93:42). What claim to light has apostasy? what claim to truth, abomination? "To grow up unto the Lord" is to be brought up in intelligence and then "to walk uprightly before the Lord" forever. 

When children live with parents whose lives contradict God's teachings about family and eternal marriage covenants, who will prepare their minds with the "doctrine of repentance?" Who will teach them to "walk uprightly before the Lord." How can they begin "to grow up unto the Lord?" The words of Jesus in the Doctrine and Covenants nevertheless reveal a saving pattern for loving friends, relatives, and grandparents who ponder and pray for answers: "Be thou humble; and the Lord thy God shall lead thee by the hand, and give thee answer to thy prayers" (112:10). "I know thy heart" (v. 11).

(See now the far more comprehensive and caring words of Elder Neal L. Andersen, Conference Report April 2016, "Whoso Receiveth Them, Receiveth Me":

Smugly quoting Luke 18:16 in a campaign for permissiveness in the name of compassion veers from "the Savior's pattern. He always was firm in what was right and wrong. He never excused or winked at sin. He never redefined it" (Elder D. Todd Christofferson). 

Christians "mourn with those who mourn." They strive to befriend, to comfort, and to reclaim. But "sorrow and sighing" over "the blight man was born for" must "flee away" before the "joy and gladness" of the Zion road (Isaiah 35:10). Even as we so kindly serve, we must also be on our way, rejoicing. 

Demanding questions face all who might tell stories of Jesus to challenge His living apostles: Do I understand children? Do I understand kindness, justice, or mercy? Would there be any kindness "in misdirecting people and leading them into any misunderstanding about what is true, what is right, what is wrong, what leads to Christ and what leads away from Christ" (Elder Christofferson)? 

To think otherwise is a dodge. Those who challenge the apostolic directive regarding blessing and baptism certainly do not wish to subject children to a wrenching stress over loyalties. What, then, do they seek? They seek for the Church of Jesus Christ cheerfully, graciously--gradually, if need be--to give up entrenched bigotry and to embrace change, change, change! But would this not be to surrender her high standards of purity? 

Such pleas for change parade as faithful dissent 
born of Christian kindness but inevitably unfold as "hard speeches" (Doctrine and Covenants 124:116). Jesus asks us to "lay aside" all our "hard speeches" (124:116). Appeals are made to the Brethren to recognize the great potential for suffering under current policies--as if policy rather than sin lay at the root of human sorrow. Some, as if posting their own 95 Theses, multiply reasons and cases, trace ramifications and delineate difficulties. The word of the Lord, quick and powerful, cuts through the sophistry (see Helaman 3:20).

The word of the Lord cuts through it all: "Be ye clean" 

(Doctrine and Covenants 38:42; Thomas S. Monson, "Preparation Brings Blessings," Conference Report, April 2010).

Others argue that the Church is digging itself in in the face of a sea-change. There is no more frontier, they say, no remaining refuge "far away in the West," and thus no escape from tidal social and generational change. 

They have forgotten Zion. Glorious things are sung of Zion! And glorious things will yet be sung: "And the wicked stood and trembled, filled with wonder and surprise." Zion will rise in wonder and her glory will surprise the world.

Service and teaching, nurture and admonition, in a loving Latter-day Saint home make family the model for greatness in Zion. Christ has provided home life for children "that great things may be required at the hands of their fathers" (Doctrine and Covenants 29:48). 

"Great things"? Great things will be required, must be required, at the hands of fathers and mothers in Zion. Great things signifies great teaching; it points our minds forward to a generation capable of building Zion; it culminates in teaching purity out of a pure heart.
 What is Zion? "And this is Zion: THE PURE IN HEART." In Zion, to the wonder and surprise of all the world, will yet remain parents who can teach their little children the words of the hymn "Dearest Children": "Cherish Virtue! Cherish Virtue! God will bless the pure in heart."

And, no matter the circumstances of the lives of His dearest children--poverty, hunger, war, even apostasy--God will ever bless the pure in heart

Tuesday, November 3, 2015

Book of Abraham Facsimile 2, Number 8: Something New Under The Sun

The saying Fools rush in where angels fear to tread ought both to sober and to encourage anyone who attempts to read the cuneiform and hieroglyphs that come to us from the Ancient Near East. The ancients beckon us to a rich feast, carefully spread; if we expect McDonald's and fast answers, we're going to drive away both humiliated and disappointed. And we often won't even recognize the humiliation, for the less we truly partake, the more we will crow. Thus it is when anyone insists that a particular type of document, or oft-appearing sentence or idiom in said document, is an open book to any-and-all comers, fully understood by all students everywhere, it doesn't quite ring true. It rings like a french fry machine. 

Or recalls "Joseph Smith Hypocephalus" on Wikipedia--further from the mark one cannot hope to drift.

To study the ancient writings calls for patience, daring, depth. The challenge ever is to take up the task with new eyes and not simply to rely on all previously said or translated, as if all that might be said had already been said. 

Yet some cast aspersions on the Prophet Joseph Smith for saying that a line of hieroglyphs found on Facsimile 2 of the Book of Abraham: "8. Contains writings that cannot be revealed unto the world; but is to be had in the Holy Temple of God." Nonsense, they say, anybody can read the line: there is no mystery at all. None at all. Not only can these writings indeed "be revealed unto the world," they challenge nobody.

Here is a run-of-the-mill Egyptian sentence, promptly (though variously!) translated by everybody, a sentence whose prolonged theme fills numbers 9-12 (as numbered on the facsimile), and whose focus appears in the final box of text, our number 8 (focus in italic): 

O noble god, lord of heaven, earth, netherworld, mountains, and primordial seas, cause that the ba-soul of Osiris Sheshonq, the deceased, might live.

The sentence under consideration thus has as focus a single, simple verb: s'ankh (s'anx). (And let me assure the reader that the hieroglyphic trace is indeed an [s].) Simple, they say, s'ankh is quite simply the causative form of the verb 'ankh (to live) and, merely, signifies to cause to live

Yet today I find a beautiful, daring, and carefully documented study on that same verb, a study which shows us just how misguided a simplistic reliance on the lexicon and grammars can be. S'nkh, it turns out, has semantic resonance undreamed of. These 30 pages, with their repeated references to initiation, guild, religious ceremonies, divine emanation, and individual induction into the renewing cycles of the cosmic order evoke, for this reader, something more along the lines of what the Prophet Joseph Smith set down than what some fleeting students, shaking their heads with a smile, and staking their reputations on it, have attested. That's quite a verb, that s'ankh, not the simple causative--y punto fijo--we've been sold on. But read the article for yourself. (And more later from this contributor.)

J. Rizzo, « À propos de sʿnḫ, “faire vivre”, et de ses dérivés », ENiM 8, 2015, p. 73-101.

Tuesday, October 6, 2015

Free Access: Religious Freedom in Alma 23

Attitudes prevalent in the West about religious freedom, especially freedom of worship and freedom to teach religion openly, portend danger to those who hope to continue both to live and to teach religious truths at home, at Church, and in the public square. The Twenty-third chapter of the Book of Alma has much to teach us about both the blessings and the limitations of religious freedom under the law.

Alma's account of the Lamanite mission of the sons of Mosiah, the Nephite king, contemplates the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ to "a wild and a ferocious people," "a people who did delight in bloodshed." The resultant "success," to borrow Alma's own language, suggests that anything is possible in our world, when Christians share truth with love. "Let your light so shine."

The story opens with drama and miracle; yet Alma insists on our grasping a broader view of the work of teaching and conversion. It is not enough to focus on the stunning accounts of Ammon in the court of Lamoni nor those of Aaron in the court of the old king, Lamoni's father. Here, we read of wonders, of trances, of visions, a dramatic beginning to the story of the Lamanite conversion. Even so, the sons of Mosiah spent 14 years in the mission field, and we suppose that each year was as necessary as the last--or as the momentous first year.

It was after the shake-up at the palace-centers that the enduring work of teaching the Gospel began. The visions, while providing preliminary gospel instruction and blessings to a few, only opened the door for teaching so many more and also so much more deeply: "Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually (Alma 22:1). Note, too, how Ammon convinced Lamoni's father to grant Lamoni full autonomy over his own kingdom before teaching the father, the "old king," himself. Ammon needed time and scope and freedom--religious freedom--or he could not have gone a step further.

We still have to identify the end of the beginning, the act that closes Scene One of the Lamanite mission. Tellingly, that act is not the miraculous conversion of Lamoni's father and household, in the central palace, but his subsequent proclamation and decree of "free access" for the sons of Mosiah as they began a fourteen-year work of teaching throughout the length and breadth of the realm.

Alma 23 allows us to understand that without a firm decree of religious freedom, not only to practice but fervently to publish and to establish, the entire Lamanite mission would have hit a dead end. It is the decree of "free access" that truly and surely and permanently opened the floodgates to the success of "Ammon and his brethren"; no wonder the conversion of kings and princes, at mission's beginning, provides the crucial key to success.

(The reader will wish to compare the proclamation in Alma 23 with that of Nephite King Mosiah in Mosiah 27. Each of these proclamations appeared in differing circumstances, and they differ in focus and expression, but each had as aim a royal defense of religious freedom, and each worked for the salvation of souls.)

Alma goes to great pains to describe the comprehensive, no loopholes nature of the Lamanite royal proclamation, which was not only decreed at the palace but also "sent" "throughout the land." Why did I miss the full import of these verses in earlier readings? I lacked Erlebnis: I had never before lived in the second decade of the 21st century, a moment of challenge to the enshrined freedom to teach religious truth, with frankness and boldness--even with blessed, loving rebuke--in the public square.

"Behold, now it came to pass that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation among all his people, that they should not lay their hands on [those] who should go forth preaching the word of God, in whatsoever place they should be, in any part of their land." Whatsoever and any! "Yea, he sent a decree among them, that they should not lay their hands on them to bind them, or to cast them into prison; neither should they spit upon them, nor smite them, nor cast them out of their synagogues, nor scourge them; neither should they cast stones at them, but that they should have free access to their houses, and also their temples, and their sanctuaries. And thus they might go forth and preach the word according to their desires."

Today's missionaries increasingly have limited access to condominiums, apartments, gated neighborhoods, and the like--on the other hand, new technologies now augment free access.

Contemplate the all-embracing nature of the royal decree. Free access, here, has all the force and protection of a royal embassy. The sons of Mosiah were to be held sacrosanct, as if enjoying the privileges of the king himself. Never in all the annals of missionary endeavor in the Latter-days do missionaries enjoy like immunity, along with such permissions, access, or allowances. Free access is the telling phrase here; for without such scope, as contemplated in the royal decree, the fourteen-year labor of converting seven cities and lands of the Lamanites would never have met with "success."

Even so, we can never pin the Book of Mormon down to a single formula: "the Lord worketh in many ways to the salvation of his people" (Alma 24:27). When Nephi and Lehi, a century later, preached to the Lamanites, they enjoyed no royal proclamation. Yet so great was the power of their words and the accompanying manifestations of the Holy Ghost that, ultimately, nothing could withstand the truth, and a nation of converts was born in a day "because of the greatness of the evidences" (Helaman 5:50).

Despite their success with the converted Seven, much of the kingdom, though all but required to hear them, stolidly rejected the sons of Mosiah. And Hugh Nibley keenly notes how the sweeping grant of "free access" recklessly bordered on royal prerogative: "I mean he practically transfers the kingdom over to the missionaries and lets them do what they want. A lot of people resent it, and they stage a revolution" (Teachings of the Book of Mormon, Semester 2: 401). One of the purposes of the Book of Mormon, Moroni tells us, is to reveal for our own instruction something of the weaknesses inherent in the character of the Lehites, high among which, says Joseph Smith, is that of being overzealous. Yet without the access so provided and decreed, it may be doubted that even a single city would have been "converted unto the Lord" in the fullness of the meaning of the phrase. Besides, there are the surprises.

The royal aim was "that the word of God might have no obstruction," and the "old king" surely foresaw all contingencies: the Amalekites and Amulonites, Nephite dissenters who lived in Lamanite lands, might block access to their own sanctuaries; they and others might spit, smite, and bind. Note how the decree does not touch on the intellectual rights of the hearers: they might freely choose to reject, disbelieve, even mock. But they had to hear the message, or let it be heard by any and all who might be willing, in a moment of free access. And--here's the surprise--the record does note how many who had initially rejected the message and thereafter fervently sought the destruction of the converted community--the Anti-Nephi-Lehies--did later, in the very teeth of struggle and bloodshed, remember, with stinging conviction, the words once taught them. It was not too late for them: they, too, "were converted unto the Lord." And to today's terrorists--en garde! With love irresistible, God may be seeking even you: for "we see that the Lord worketh in many ways to the salvation of his people" (Alma 24:27). He will find His people, though He turn the earth over in unrelenting pursuit.

"I fled him, down the Nights and down the
I fled him, down the arches of the Years;"

"Ah, Fondest, Blindest, Weakest,
I am He Whom thou Seekest!"
(from Francis Thompson, "Hound of Heaven")

So prophesies the stunning Book of Mormon! And so--speaking in that same Spirit--"we can plainly discern" like transformations in days not long delayed in which He will also verify his word unto us "in every particular" (see Alma 24:30; 25:17; and also Elder Bruce R. McConkie, "The Coming Tests and Trials and Glory," in Conference Report, April 1980).

Alma 23 also lends further insight into the stupendous work of preaching the gospel to the dead: free access brings the mighty harvest.

"Thus we see" that the proclamation of Alma 23, with its sweeping terms and allowances, including full allowance of religious speech and proselytizing in every public place, without let whatsoever, became necessary for the full measure of missionary success.

And, in that light, notice how everything, despite hardships, labors, and miracles, remains merely a beginning: "And thus they began to have great success. And thousands were brought to the knowledge of the Lord, yea, thousands were brought to believe in the traditions of the Nephites; and they were taught the records and prophecies which were handed down even to the present time." Even so, among the recalcitrant revolutionaries, when once deeply stung by the recollected Word: "there were more than a thousand brought to the knowledge of the truth" (Alma 24:27).

And note again the idea of "teaching continually," that is, teaching thoroughly and deeply. Here was no brisk announcement of gospel truth, but a full-blown program of replacing all prior tradition, as passed from father to son, with an entirely unknown tradition, though record based, and stretching over hundreds of years. By the end of the fourteen years, those "converted unto the Lord" had "searched the scriptures" as diligently, as completely, and as comprehensively and comprehendingly, as ever had Himni or Omner or Muloki. Clearly free access contemplated no brief stops in sanctuaries and houses, but a continuation of teaching until the task reached all desired ends. Not until the Millennial dawn can Latter-day Saints imagine enjoying such free access in converting the world to Christ.

Although grateful for the provisions of the Bill of Rights and other world documents that guarantee freedom to publish the Word, we realize that such privileges and protections do not obtain in many parts of Africa, Asia, or the Middle East. There remain many places where No access obstructs the Word. For now, we glory in any and all access enjoyed throughout the Americas, Europe, and large swaths of Asia and Africa--yet even the boasted Bill of Rights, wise and inspired though it be, carries but little of the sweeping power of the Lamanite royal proclamation. "Oh, that I were an angel!" cries Alma. And well may we cry: Oh, that I and we enjoyed the privileges of free access, including the freedom of preaching without any let or harassment whatsoever, as once enjoyed by special sons of Mosiah for a fourteen-year period, in a little "hemmed-in" land, a century before the coming of Christ.

But, to borrow Alma's wording, we are men and do sin in our wish. And do we not often ask for what we ought not? As splendidly sweeping as free access sounds, the freedoms of speech and religious expression granted by our own Bill of Rights, even with all the limitations on carefree access inherent therein, will better serve God's purposes. Balance, respect, public safety, choice, and an openness to thoughtful judicial interpretation: therein lies the safe path. As the Ancient Egyptians would say of justice and order: "Follow Ma'at, but do not exaggerate" (quoted in Erik Hornung, Idea into Image).

Let us fervently rejoice over what religious freedoms we do now enjoy, under the strictures of the First Amendment, and let us protect, preserve, and defend those sacred freedoms forever. Even in that millennial day, when truth, as prophesied, will fill the earth, the spread of the gospel of Jesus Christ will lend itself to both the spirit and the wording of our own treasured Bill of Rights.

Monday, July 27, 2015

A Duckling Called Love

Ducklings in City Creek Park, a block away from Temple Square in Salt Lake City, are an event--even a Sabbath delight.

A family, who had been strolling by the Temple, caught sight of the ducklings, and an excited mother quickly steered children toward the pond, as Dad crouched down by the bank to shoot some pictures. They appeared to be an assortment: Mom, Uncle, Dad, Aunt, and the various 'ducklings.'

"They don't have any names," I offered. "Nobody's given them any names yet!"

The children eagerly responded. A wee Fairhair, pointing out her duckling, cried out: "That one's Grandma."

Paddling nearby were two female mallards, and one of the mothers said: "Look, two mommy ducks!" Fairhair, not-quite-three, immediately corrected her: "No! It's the mommy and the daddy!"

There came to mind a story from President Boyd K. Packer: "Hey there, you little monkeys. You'd better settle down." "I not a monkey, Daddy; I a person!" ("Little Children," Conference Report, October 1986).

What about that yellow duckling named Grandma? Childish absurdity? You never know. . . "Grandma" might have been any of the young ladies present. To the little ones, Grandma has nothing to do with age anyhow--what do they care about age?--and everything to do with Love.

Sunday, July 26, 2015

The Title of Liberty: "In the air" and On the Air and Through Cyberspace

In memory of our God, our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children

So reads Moroni's Title of Liberty, written on a rent piece of cloth and "fastened" "on the end of a pole" (Alma 46:12). Title recalls both Hebrew zikkaron (memorial sign or inscription) and, given the specific reference to a pole, tsiyyun (roadmark, signpost; see KJV 2 Kings 23:17).

Moroni waved the Title of Liberty "in the air, that all might see" (v. 19); we can broadcast religious freedom and family values on the air and through cyberspace.

Friday, July 24, 2015

David Reeder: Willie Handcart Company

The justly famed hardcart pioneer, Levi Savage, made the following entry in his journal:

Platte R. Wednesday 1st Oct 1856

Today This morning, Brother David Reader was found dead in his bead. He has ben ill Some time. He had no pertient deseas. But debility He was a good man and a worthy member of the Church.

Robert Reeder gives us precious added insight into the nature of a Mormon pioneer's "debility":

My father, David Reeder, would start out in the morning and pull his cart until he would drop on the road. He did this day after day until he did not rise early October 1, 1856.

I thankfully acknowledge my pioneer ancestry, those of the tall ship and of the handcart, those of the last wagon, and those of the first.

I am grateful, humbled, to know that my grandfather, David Reeder, belonged to the Willie Handcart Company. I am far more grateful to know that he lived and died "a worthy member of the Church."